WHat is a stroke?

ACUTE ISCHEMIC VS HEMORRHAGIC STROKE

TWO TYPES OF STROKE

Stroke can be caused by either a clot that obstructs the flow of blood to the brain (an ischemic stroke) or by a blood vessel that ruptures and thus prevents blood flow to the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke). A TIA (transient ischemic attack) or "mini stroke" is caused by a temporary clot. When either of these things happen, the brain cells begin to die or are at risk of damage.

Source1

ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE: 80% TO 85% OF STROKE CASES

80% to 85% of all strokes  are of the ischemic type resulting from a clot (also called a thrombus) that blocks a cerebral artery. The primary goal for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke patients is to rapidly restore blood flow so that undamaged brain tissue can recover.  The longer the brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, the greater the risk of permanent brain damage. Acute treatments for ischemic stroke include thrombolysis, drug therapies to break down the thrombus, and thrombectomy, a surgical procedure to physically remove the clot.

How to regognize stroke?

THE FASTER YOU REACT, THE FASTER YOU SAVE LIVES

Being able to recognize the signs of onset of a stroke is very important because it is necessary to act as quickly as possible. Indeed, the sooner a stroke is treated, the less damage it will cause the victim. An acronym called "FAST" can help you remember the symptoms and what to do if they appear.

Facial Drooping

The face is paralyzed and drooping.

Arm weakness

The patient cannot lift their arms or legs normally.

Speech difficulty

The patient’s speech is slurred.

TIME TO CALL THE EMERGENCY SERVICES

Call for help (112 or 911) as soon as possible!

Key points

Stroke outcomes

The most common cause of acquired disabilities in adults

Despite sustained efforts worldwide to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality relative to cardiovascular diseases, stroke or cerebral infarction remains one of the leading causes of acquired disabilities in adults2 and the second most common cause of death worldwide3. Each year, about a million patients in Europe experience a stroke, and approximately 800,000 in the USA. Worldwide, 13.7 million people suffer from a stroke each year, 5,5 million of whom die3.

Stroke is a cardiovascular disease and is positively impacted by the prevention of risk factors.  However, population aging has generally compensated for this prevention and the number of strokes continues to rise in certain age groups, possible due to changing lifestyles.

Stroke outcomes can be disastrous

- Death: stroke is the second most common cause of deaths worldwide.
- Disability: stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disabilities and adult acquired disabilities in the world.

A major economic impact

As well as being a major public health issue, stroke has an important economic impact. For instance, in 2016, the costs of stroke-related medical care and disabilities were estimated at $103.6 billion in the USA4. In EU countries, the total annual costs of stroke are estimated at €60 billion, including informal care5.

Sources

[1] GBD 2016 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 18, 439–458 (2019).

[2] Craig S Anderson et al., “Low-Dose versus Standard-Dose Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke.,” The New England Journal of Medicine (June 16, 2016).

[3] GBD 2016 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 18, 439–458 (2019).

[4] Ramon Luengo-Fernandez et al., “Economic Burden of Stroke across Europe: A Population-Based Cost Analysis.,” European Stroke Journal (March 2020).

[5] Ramon Luengo-Fernandez et al., “Economic Burden of Stroke across Europe: A Population-Based Cost Analysis.,” European Stroke Journal (March 2020).

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